Writing proposals for funding is one of the most crucial aspects of any NGO. Proposals are important for any organization, as they decide the success or failure of an organization. No matter how big or small your organization is you cannot get away from writing a project proposal. As an NGO staff, you might be aware that the primary purpose of a project proposal is to convince the donor agency to fund your project. It is thus important for you to write a proposal that is innovative, practical, and methodological. Your proposal should look at solving an important socio-developmental issue and at the same time should be appealing to the donor.
The purpose of this guide is to help NGOs in developing a master proposal template that can be used for developing proposals which can convince donors to fund their respective projects.
To start with lets us first understand what is a project proposal? A project proposal is a document that presents a logical process of solving a problem. It provides a detailed description of the problem, the intended plan of actions towards tackling the problem and the budgetary requirement for implementing the same. This document is then submitted to the donor in anticipation of funds so that you can continue your efforts. A funding proposal forms the basis of your relationship with the donor and therefore should be developed with utmost care and diligence.
A hastily written proposal will create an impression that you are not a serious contender and would reduce the possibility of getting funded. On the other hand, if you plan the entire process of proposal development, not only your chances of getting the desired resources to increase, you will lay down the foundation of a strong relationship with the donor.
While drafting the proposal make sure that you read a few winning proposals (these are usually available online), before drafting your proposal. This will help you in structuring your proposal and will give you insight into the terminology, format and language that is preferred by donors. Depending on the size of your organization you can build a team for developing the proposal. The team members should possess good writing skills along with sound technical knowledge of the related subject.
In the following pages, various sections of a proposal are described; you can draft the proposal using this template and then customize it to suit donor guidelines. For helping you develop your proposal, suitable examples have been used to describe the content of each section.
Title Page: The title page typically contains the project title, along with contact details of the organization and the donor. Remember that the title of the project should be catchy and should capture the essence of the project proposal. The project title should provide a general idea of what the project is about and at the same time be simple and straightforward.
Your title page should be attractive and should not look cluttered and unprofessional.
Executive summary: This section is the summary of the project and presents a snapshot of the project to the reader. The executive summary not only summarizes the project proposal but also analyses important points relating to the problem, the solution, the uniqueness of the proposal and the reason your organization is suitable to carry out such a project.
To set the right tone it is important that you are able to address to the Why, How, and what of the proposal, (Why- why do you want to start a particular project/why is the particular problem so important, How relates to the approach you will use to resolve the problem, and What refers to the goals you want to achieve at the end of the project.)
Even though the executive summary is the first section in the proposal document, you can always draft this section once you have completed drafting the entire proposal. This way it will be easier for you to take important points from the proposal body and use it in the summary. Some points that you should keep in mind while summarizing the proposal are given below:
- Why is the project important?
- What is the problem that you are addressing?
- How do you intend to resolve the problem?
- What is the total budget and duration for the proposed project?
The ideal length of the executive summary usually is of around one page long which approximately 300-500 words.
Example: The Global Widows Report demonstrates that disadvantage in widowhood is not limited to one culture, society or region. Majority of the widows globally, live in extreme poverty and are often ostracized by society. They have to struggle for gender equity on one hand and for their rights as a widow on the other.
Women in Busia face similar problems as men in the society tend to control them through use of violence. The area also has significantly higher rates of polygamy and promiscuity which further enhances cases of high GBV. Owing to the high incidence of GBV in the area, there is a need to develop a program to help women get rid of such problems and are made aware of their rights and are empowered.
The proposed project seeks to usher 100 vulnerable women (widows and victims of all forms of GBV) from extreme poverty through entrepreneurship development in Busia County, Kenya. The project will be implemented during a period of 12 months.
Project Rationale/Background: This is an important section of the proposal as it presents the argument of why your project needs funding. It describes the issues and problems that a particular community faces and how your organization would address the given problem.
Many organizations also refer to this section as the project background or context, as it provides the reader with all necessary information about the project area. While writing the rationale of the proposal it is critical that you quote facts and figures as evidence to your problem. These facts can be from data that your organization has collected or can be from research articles etc. Along with stating data to justify the project, you should also mention about why your organization is suitable to carry out the project (mention about similar projects that you have implemented). Some points that should be considered while drafting the project rationale are:
- What is the problem?
- What are some important facts related to the problem?
- Why is your organization suited to carry out such a project?
- What are the key actions that you will carry out as part of the project?
- What are some expected results of the project?
There is no standard rule for writing the project rationale, but most experts consider that the following four elements should be covered by the rationale.
- Situation Analysis: This section should briefly explore the current situation of the area. You can quote facts about the problem in this particular section.
- Purpose: Here you should talk about why it is important to solve the particular problem and also what approach can be used to resolve the issue.
- Organization Strength: In this section focus on your organization’s strength and your past experience in resolving similar issues.
Example: The 2015 report estimates the total number of widows globally to be 258,481,056 – a 9% increase since 2010. Of these, it is estimated that 14.8% of widows live in extreme poverty where basic needs go unmet. Apart from financial, cultural and social neglect, widows also undergo severe psychological and emotional trauma. Their problems are further aggravated by their inaccessibility to proper education, legal and social reforms. The problems faced by widows have far-reaching consequences in developing countries.
Women in Busia face similar problems as men in society tend to control them through the use of violence. The area also has significantly higher rates of polygamy and promiscuity which further enhances cases of high GBV. The proposed project seeks to usher 100 vulnerable women (widows and victims of all forms of GBV) from extreme poverty through entrepreneurship development in Busia County, Kenya. Empowering them towards economic development will not only facilitate in improving the socio-economic condition of women but will also help in the betterment of the entire family. Financial independence gained through entrepreneurship development will provide confidence to women and they will be able to avail their rights. The project will be implemented during a period of 12 months. This project aims at tapping the potential of women through investment on awareness generation, capacity building and setting up of enterprises in the area. Considering the socio-cultural and financial needs of the villages, the proposed project is socially feasible, economically viable and environmentally sound.
We have been working in the area for the last five years under our Women Empowerment initiative. The mission of ABC is to empower women in tribal areas through awareness and enterprise development. Over the last three decades, we are striving to empower the illiterate and poverty-stricken people of this region, and mainstreaming them into the society.
Project Goal: Goal is a broad statement that defines what you plan to do in a project. Always remember that a well-written goal statement is a marketing tool that will help you in getting funded. The goal basically defines the purpose of the proposal by giving an idea to the reader of what problem your organization intends to address. As the goal of the proposal shows the reader your intention towards solving a particular problem it should be linked with the problem statement. For instance, if the problem that you are addressing is related to widow rehabilitation and well being your goal should state that you seek to empower widows in the area through the proposed project. You can use words like decrease, deliver, develop, establish, improve, increase, produce, and provide while writing the proposal.
Framing a quality Goal
- Avoid vagueness: Goal should clearly indicate the purpose of your proposal and specify certain aspects of the project.
- Link the Goal with the problem statement: Goal should be linked with the problem statement, so that reader knows of why you to implement a particular project.
- The goal should be consistent with your organization’s mission and vision statement: The project goal should also be consistent with the organization’s mission and vision. For example, if your organization works for women related projects then make sure that your project also discusses about your primary stakeholders.
- Use simple language to write a goal: Avoid the use of jargons and technical words to write a goal. Use language that is easy to understand by people, not something for which people have to use a dictionary.
- Keep only one goal for a proposal: It is a good practice to have a single goal for your project. As the goal is a broad statement it will surely encompass multiple things which would be addressed through the various objectives.
Example: To empower 100 widows and vulnerable women in Busia County, through Entrepreneurship Development and capacity development.
From the example above you will see that the goal statement is broad but at the same time also provides some specific details about your project and is not vague. The goal here clearly indicates the following:
- The main purpose of the project is the empowerment of widows and vulnerable women.
- The target beneficiary of the project is 100 widows and vulnerable women.
- Entrepreneurship Development and capacity development will be used to empower the women.
- The project will be implemented in Busia County.
Objective: Objectives are detailed statements describing the ways through which you intend to achieve the goal. Use the S.M.A.R.T. method of writing your objectives which means writing Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, and Time-bound statements. All the objectives should contribute to and supports in achieving the specified goal. While framing the objectives ensure that they provide answers to the 5Ws:
- Why: are you proposing a particular thing?
- What: approach will you adopt to reach the desired goal?
- When: will you conduct a particular project?
- Where: will you implement the project?
- Who: will be the primary stakeholders/beneficiaries or who will be doing a particular thing in a project?
Your objectives should always be written using action verbs like create, identify, promote, enhance, increase, and develop etc. These verbs help in describing the course of action and give clarity to your object.
Example: For the goal that was framed in the previous step, the following objectives can be framed-
Objective 1: To provide counselling to 100 identified Vulnerable Women to increase their participation in public life as informed citizens with constitutionally mandated rights.
Objective 2: To improve the quality of life of the 100 identified Vulnerable Women by improving family health and interpersonal relations, and coping capacities.
Objective 3: To support 100 Vulnerable Women with IGAs and entrepreneurship skills in tailoring and jewellery making.
Project Strategy: Project Strategyrefers to the methods that will be used in achieving project goals and objectives. These are broad approaches and provide direction in project implementation. The strategy will align your project activities with the project goals and objectives.
- Awareness Generation
- Capacity Building
- Market Linkages
- Enterprise Development
Project Activities: These refer to the smallest identifiable and measurable pieces of work planned for completion throughout a project. Defining the activities help the project staff to understand what actions to do and at what time. Every activity is associated with a definite interim goal or objective.
- Identification of widows in the village
- Conducting counseling sessions.
- Conducting Motivational sessions
- Meetings with families and guardians
- Awareness session on widow rights
Project Management/Personnel: This section talks about project management aspects. Here, you mention about the implementation staff, the implementation schedule and other related stuff. You can describe the people who will be hired as part of the project along with their respective roles. Example: The Project team will comprise of the following staff members:
- Project Director, who will be responsible for the overall administration and management of the project. He/she will develop proposals for future funding and manage the other staff.
- Social worker: responsible for the mobilization and conducting initial level village meetings and orientation sessions.
- Counsellors: Will conduct emotional and motivational sessions for the women.
- Trainers: A total of three trainers for conducting training on soft skills, tailoring and jewellery designing.
Similarly you can also mention about the implementation schedule of various activities.
Monitoring & Evaluation: This section discusses the proposed mechanisms and procedures for monitoring the project activities so that one can ensure that all activities occur as planned. You should have a well-defined plan to monitor your project activities and also to evaluate the success of the project. Monitoring allows the project team to keep a check on the progress, while evaluation helps the team to appraise data and improve project implementation in future.
- Having a system of monthly, quarterly and annual progress reports
- Multi-level review systems
- Participatory appraisal methods
- Questionnaire survey
- Project Results: Project proposals should explain all the expected results that will be achieved by the project. Project results can be divided into three types:
- Outputs: These are immediate results obtained after implementing an activity.
- Outcomes: Outcomes are the mid-term results which are not observed immediately but are felt after some time.
- Impact: Impact is usually a long-term result and is usually not achieved during the life cycle of the project.
This section generally describes the overall results that the project is expected to accomplish.
- Awareness of 200 women on issues of legal issues, widow rights and mental health issues enhanced.
- 200 women imparted life skill training for their overall development.
- Sustainable enterprise established by the formation of 2 cooperatives will help in easy access to markets and will considerably enhance the family incomes.
- Increased income and confidence will have multi-generational impact as it will help in securing a better future for the entire family of 200 women.
Performance Indicator: Performance indicators form an important part of the proposal as they indicate whether the objectives have achieved meaningful results. Performance indicators help the project team in identifying the quality and level of the result that has been achieved. Performance indicators have been categorized into qualitative; quantitative, process and result indicators. Quantitative indicators are numerical in nature while qualitative indicators require subjective evaluation. Similarly, process indicators are used to define a process or an activity, while results indicators refer to the indicators that indicate the result achieved from implementing the activity. While identifying the performance indicators keep the following in mind:
- Should be realistic
- Should be simple to use
- Have few meaningful indicators that can be used regularly to assess the project
- Can be used for analysis
- Gives a clear indication of the success of the result.
- Number of women trained in specific skill
- Number of women entrepreneurs who started their own enterprise.
- Number of users of various technologies (communication technology, agricultural technology
- Number of trainings held
- Attendance of women in various training sessions
- Number of SHGs Formed
- Household income change
Sustainability: To sustain the impacts of any community-based project it is essential that suitable linkages are developed with the local community, government department and all relevant stakeholders. You should clearly spell out the sustainability measures in your project.
Example: Some ways through which you can ensure sustainability.
- Community Participation: We ensure that the local people actively participate in the entire project so that they own the project rather than considering it as some sort of charity.
- Multi-stakeholder engagement/partnerships: We involve stakeholders which include local CSOs, NGOs and government line departments and develop synergies with them. This helps in enhancing the visibility of the project and also reduces duplication of activities.
- Expanding resource and donor base: We always engage new donors and stakeholders in our programs and we have multiple funding sources, which includes membership fees and funding from individuals and institutional grants from donors.
Review and Editing: Read the proposal again and again so that you can reduce the occurrence of mistakes. Be sure that the proposal is clear and easy to understand. Has your proposal read by two-three to eliminate all sorts of errors in the text? Many organizations also get their proposals reviewed by a cold reader (a person who was not involved in the project writing). This sort of review helps you in improving the quality of the proposal. Once all the necessary changes have been incorporated you can submit the proposal to the identified donor agency.
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