Logical Framework Analysis helps to clarify the purpose of, and the justification for a project, identify information requirements, clearly define key elements of a project, analyze the project’s setting at an early stage, facilitate communication between all parties involved, identify how the success or failure of the project should be measured.
Definition of Logical Framework Analysis
Logical Framework Analysis (LFA) can be defined as a systematic planning procedure for complete project cycle management. It is a problem- solving approach which takes into account the views of all stakeholder and agrees on the criteria for project success along with listing major assumptions.
History of Logical Framework Analysis
The first logical framework developed for USAID at the end of 1960’s. NORAD made a significant contribution in 1990 with their handbook. There is a variation of this tool which are known as OOPP (Object Oriented Program Planning) and GOPP (Goal Oriented Program Planning).
Elements of Log Frame
A log frame identifies essential elements of the project and is generally drawn as a table on a single page. The points mentioned below run down left to right in the table.
- Narrative Summary – The Goal, Impact and output of the project generally defined in the left- hand side column.
- Goal – The ultimate result after 5-10 years – may be beyond the reach of the project
- Outcome: Final result after completion of the project
- Output – Specifically intended immediate result of the project activities
- Activities- Actual task
- Indicator – Also referred as OVI, quantitative or qualitative was of measuring result.
- Means of Verification – Data required to assess the progress
- Input – Referred as trainings, funds, HR
Types of Results
Output: An output is a direct product of the programme or project. The products and services which result from a development intervention and which are relevant to the achievement of an outcome.
Outcome: While an outcome, is not the direct product of the programme or project, but the effects on the recipient community or beneficiaries. The likely or achieved short-term and medium-term effects of an intervention’s outputs.
Impact: Positive and negative, long-term effects on identifiable population groups produced by a development intervention, directly or indirectly, intended or unintended.
Meaning of Assumption and Risks
Assumptions are things identified that one might expect will remain constant or predictable, as they relate to the topics in the first three columns (Narrative Summary, Expected Results and Performance Indicators).
Risk is a potential event or occurrence beyond the control of the programme that could adversely affect the achievement of the desired results
Effects: Addressing the effects identifies possible indicators
Output/ Impact: Turning the problem into a positive statement gives the outcome or impact
Causes: Addressing the causes identifies possible outputs and activities
Problem Tree explained:
The substantial and direct causes of the focal problem (lack of sufficient clean water) are placed parallel on the line above it.
The substantial and direct effects of the focal problem are placed parallel underneath it.
Causes and effects are further developed along the same principle to form the problem tree.
Terms in Performance measurement
Indicator: An indicator is a quantitative and/or qualitative variable that allows the verification of changes produced by a development intervention relative to what was planned.
Target: A specific level of performance that an intervention is projected to accomplish in a given time period.
Milestone: An indicator used during the lifetime of a plan by which progress, usually of output delivery, can be measured.
Baseline: The situation prior to a development intervention against which progress can be assessed or comparisons made.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Logical Framework Analysis
- It ensures that the fundamental questions are answered and analysed, which in turn enables the decision maker with better and relevant information.
- It guides systematic and logical analysis of the inter-related key elements which constitute a well- designed project.
- It improves planning and develops linkages between project elements and external factors.
- It is a generic analytical tool.
- LFA is only one of several tools used during project preparation.